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Friendly vs. Hostile Takeovers: Understanding the Differences and Implications

A concise review of the contrasting dynamics between friendly and hostile takeovers. Drawing from notable cases like Facebook's acquisition of WhatsApp and Xerox's bid for HP Inc., it provides readers with a clear understanding of the challenges, benefits, and implications of each approach in the M&A landscape.

In the dynamic world of business, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) play a pivotal role in shaping industries and markets. Among the various M&A strategies, takeovers stand out as a dominant force. But not all takeovers are created equal. There are primarily two types: friendly and hostile, each with its own set of challenges and opportunities. The acquisition of WhatsApp by Facebook and Xerox’s bid for HP Inc. serve as prime examples of these two distinct approaches.

What is a Hostile Takeover?

A friendly takeover is characterized by mutual agreement and collaboration between the acquiring and target companies. In 2014, Facebook’s acquisition of WhatsApp showcased the hallmarks of a friendly takeover. Recognizing the potential of the messaging app, Facebook approached WhatsApp’s leadership with an offer. Through amicable negotiations, they reached a deal where WhatsApp was acquired for $19 billion. This acquisition allowed WhatsApp to continue operating independently while benefiting from Facebook’s vast resources, illustrating the mutual benefits that can arise from such collaborations.

What is a Hostile Takeover?

On the other side of the spectrum lies the hostile takeover, where the acquiring company makes a bid without the consent or agreement of the target company’s management. Xerox’s bid for HP Inc. in 2019-2020 exemplifies this approach. Xerox, seeing strategic value in acquiring HP, made an unsolicited bid. Despite facing multiple rejections by HP’s board and a public, contentious battle, Xerox persisted. This attempt, characterized by open letters, public statements, and significant media attention, highlighted the challenges and complexities of hostile takeovers. By March 2020, influenced by various factors, including the COVID-19 pandemic’s economic uncertainties, Xerox decided to drop its takeover bid.

Key Differences Between Friendly and Hostile Takeovers

AspectFriendly TakeoverHostile Takeover
InitiationMutual agreement between both companies.Without the consent of the target company’s management.
NegotiationOpen and collaborative discussions.Limited or no direct communication between companies.
DurationGenerally quicker due to mutual agreement.Can be prolonged due to resistance and legal challenges.
CostOften less expensive due to fewer legal hurdles.Can be costlier due to potential legal battles and premium share prices.
IntegrationSmoother integration due to collaborative planning.Potential challenges due to lack of prior coordination.

Implications for the Acquiring Company

Understanding the nuances between friendly and hostile takeovers is crucial for the acquiring company. A friendly takeover, like Facebook’s acquisition of WhatsApp, often leads to smoother integration and fewer disruptions. However, hostile takeovers, exemplified by Xerox’s bid for HP, can offer lucrative opportunities but come with challenges, including potential cultural clashes and integration issues.

Implications for the Target Company

For the target company, a friendly takeover often means a shared vision for the future. On the other hand, hostile takeovers can lead to uncertainties, potential layoffs, and significant shifts in company direction, as HP’s management might have felt during Xerox’s bid.

The Role of Stakeholders

Shareholders, employees, and other stakeholders play a significant role in the outcome of a takeover. In friendly scenarios like the Facebook-WhatsApp deal, stakeholders are often kept in the loop. In hostile scenarios, as with Xerox’s bid for HP, shareholders might be courted by the acquiring company, while employees might face uncertainties.


In the intricate dance of mergers and acquisitions, understanding the steps is crucial. The acquisitions of WhatsApp by Facebook and Xerox’s bid for HP Inc. provide valuable examples of friendly and hostile takeovers. As the business landscape evolves, so too will the strategies companies employ. By understanding these nuances, businesses can make informed decisions that align with their goals and vision.